BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF MALARIA IN PERU
Palmira Ventosilla1, Jorge Vélez1, Mark Snyder3,
Humberto Guerra1, Esperamza Reyes2 , Pablo Villaseca4,
Pedro Novak 1, Miguel Campos1, Robert Zimmerman5,
Lucy Hartman6, Beronica Infante1, Jenny Merello1,
Ana María Palacios7, Pablo Gutiérrez7, Edgardo Gonzaga
7, 12, Humberto Toro 8, Roberto
Michilot9, Roberto Torres 110,
12, Wilfredo Atoche 12, Evelyn Torres13,
JOGA 14 , Saavedra K 14
, José Chauca1.
1 Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia (IMT-AvH, UPCH). A.P. 4314, Lima-100, Perú.
2 Escuela de Salud Pública-UPCH. A.P. 4314, Lima-100, Perú.
3 Catholic Relief Services, Lima-Perú.
4 Departamento de Entomología, Instituto Nacional de Salud. A.P.: 451. Lima, Perú.
5 University of Florida, 3806 SW 3rd Ave, Gainesville, FL 32607. USA
7 Programa de Control de Malaria, Piura II - MINSA, Jesus María, Lima-Perú.
8 Escuela Secundaria de Salitral. Salitral. Sullana. Piura. Perú.
9 Escuela Primaria Cabo Verde, Salitral, Sullana, Piura, Perú.
10 Escuela Primaria Nº 14876, Salitral, Sullana, Piura, Perú.
11 Escuela Primaria Nº 14875, Salitral, Sullana, Piura., Perú.
12Grupo Amistad Bibliotecultura Municipal Salitreña (ABIMSA). Biblioteca de la Municipalidad de Salitral, Sullana, Piura, Perú.
13Colegio Regional de Obstetrices Piura, Perú.
14 Juventud defensora del medio Ambiente, Salitral. Sullana. Piura.
In the Peru, 2,5 million inhabitants live in areas of high and very high risk of malaria transmission (2002). 69 618 cases of malaria were notified in the 43rd week of 2004, and the risk of infection was 253 cases per 100000 inhabitants.
The purpose of this project (1992) was to develop, test and promote community-based techniques for larval vector control in malaria endemic areas using Bacillus thuringiensis Susp. israelensis H-14 (Bti) which was produced in whole ripe coconuts. The intervention was implemented in the community of Salitral, Piura; along the northern coast of Peru. After the educational intervention (1993), an evaluation of 50 students gave the following results: 25% were able to distinguish between Anopheles and Culex larvae. 54% correctly identified the malaria transmission cycle, and 100% knew the effects of Bti on anopheline larvae.
The mortality of Anopheles albimanus larvae ranged from 80.71% to 89.45%; in the ponds where the students worked.
In 2003-2004, we conducted a KAP survey (knowledge, attitudes and practices) on malaria and dengue control in Salitral (six years after the original intervention), and in Querecotillo (without intervention). We found that the people in Salitral had more knowledge about Bti killing mosquito larvae (20.8%, CI 95%: 16.8 to 24.8 %) and about methods of malaria control using personal protection and environmental management (11.8 %, CI 95%: 6.2 to 17.4%), than did the people in Querecotillo.). The difference between Salitral and Querecotillo in regards to the people’s attitudes and practices towards malaria and dengue control was 12.3% (CI 95%: 8.1-16.5).
In conclusion, the transfer of knowledge, competencies and abilities for malaria and dengue control to the community of Salitral has become an important facilitator for the implementation of local community-wide activities oriented to disease control. The community of Salitral has increased their knowledge, attitudes and practices. As a consequence, Salitral has had much less malaria [1998=61.58, 2000=20.04, 2002=52.72, 2003=6.08 Annual Parasitic Index (API)]. In addition, Salitral has had no dengue cases, while Querecotillo has every years (2001= 153.68, 2002=2.28, 2003=4.11 API),
Community participation and biological control would complement Ministry of Health’s malaria control program and the introduction of KAP for one disease may increase the level of community control of similar diseases.
Key words: biological control, malaria, coconut, Bti, Anopheles, KAP, Aedes aegypti, community participation, vectorial control, transfer of knowledge and abilities